In several States across India, climate change induced erratic temperatures and change in rainfall pattern continue to exacerbate water and vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, cholera and typhoid. Most individuals experiencing these symptoms typically manifest indicators such as fever, weakness and body ache. As soon as you notice any of these symptoms, get yourself tested to prevent potential health complications, doctors prescribe THE HEALTH PIONEER
The doctors say that during the monsoon season, being vigilant about various fevers and their symptoms is crucial for timely diagnosis and effective treatment. If you experience persistent fever along with other associated symptoms, consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. These diseases disproportionately affect vulnerable populations, including the elderly, poor, children, and marginalized communities, who may have limited access to healthcare and resources for prevention and control.
Below are the most common monsoon diseases that can wreak havoc on your health.
- Viral Fever
- Stomach Infections
Six Types of Fever to Look Out For
Malaria Fever: Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease prevalent in many tropical regions. The female Anopheles mosquito transmits the parasite responsible for malaria. Symptoms usually include high fever, chills, headache, body aches, and fatigue. If you experience these symptoms, it is essential to seek medical attention promptly and get proper treatment. Otherwise, it may cause health complications like cerebral malaria, which leads to death among malaria patients, seizures, renal failure, jaundice and respiratory disorders may also occur.
Dengue Fever: Dengue fever, transmitted by mosquitoes (Aedes species), is a viral infection commonly seen during the monsoon season. Symptoms include high-grade fever, severe headache, joint and muscle pain, rash, and in severe cases, bleeding manifestations. Also, there may be less urination and breathlessness in the patients. There is a risk of a drop in platelet count during dengue which can prove fatal if not addressed timely. Early diagnosis and adequate hydration are crucial in managing dengue fever.
Nipah Fever: Initial symptoms of Nipah virus are non-specific such as fever, headache, dizziness, myalgia, vomiting and loose stools. This may progress to brain involvement in the form of seizures and encephalitis. It has very high morbidity in the form of psychiatric and neurological complications (depression, personality changes, deficits in attention, verbal, and/or visual memory) after recovery.
Public health measures such as isolation, quarantine, and infection control practices are essential to prevent outbreaks of Nipah virus infection.
Leptospirosis Fever: Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection typically contracted through contact with contaminated water or soil, particularly during floods. Symptoms include high fever, severe headache, muscle pain, chills, nausea, and vomiting. The Leptospira bacteria is found in animal urine, which contaminates water and soil during heavy rains. Early treatment with antibiotics is necessary to prevent complications.
Prevention and Protection: Avoid wading or swimming in floodwaters:
Leptospira bacteria can enter your body through cuts or abrasions. Stay away from flooded areas or wear protective clothing, including rubber boots.
Maintain proper hygiene: Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after exposure to floodwaters or contaminated soil.
Chikungunya Fever: Chikungunya is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes. Symptoms include sudden high fever, severe joint pain, muscle pain, headache, fatigue, and rash.
Proper rest, pain management, and maintaining hydration levels are essential in the management of chikungunya fever.
Prevention and Precautions: While it’s important to be aware of these fevers, taking preventive measures can significantly reduce the risk of contracting them. Leptospira bacteria can enter your body through cuts or abrasions.
Stay away from flooded areas or wear protective clothing, including rubber boots. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after exposure to floodwaters or contaminated soil.
Typhoid Fever: Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection caused by the Salmonella typhi bacterium. Contaminated food and water are common sources of transmission. Symptoms include prolonged fever, headache, abdominal pain, and weakness.
Prevention and Protection: Practice good hygiene: Wash hands thoroughly before eating or handling food, and ensure that food is properly cooked and stored. Boil water before drinking or use a water purifier to eliminate bacterial contamination. Consider getting vaccinated against typhoid fever, especially if you are traveling to an endemic region.
Cholera Fever: Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It spreads through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Heavy rainfall and flooding can contaminate water sources, leading to the spread of cholera. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration.
Treatment and Prevention :There is a vaccine for cholera. Both the CDC and the World Health Organization have specific guidelines for who should be given this vaccine. You can protect yourself and your family by using only water that has been boiled, water that has been chemically disinfected, or bottled water.
Be sure to use bottled, boiled, or chemically disinfected water.
Hydration is the mainstay of treatment for cholera. Depending on how severe the diarrhea is, treatment will consist of oral or intravenous solutions to replace lost fluids.