Mistreatment of ethnic and religious minorities is not uncommon in Myanmar. But the ethnic cleansing of Rohingya Muslims is driven by anti-Muslim paranoia
During the past 65 years of military rule in Burma, the Army has killed thousands of people from almost every one of the country's numerous minorities: Shans, Karens, Kachins, Karennis, Mon, Chin and many other smaller groups. But the only ones who faced genocide are the Rohingyas, and it is happening right now.
Only two-thirds of Myanmar's 52 million people are ethnic Burmese, and almost all other groups have rebelled from time to time because they have no autonomy. Indeed, the original military takeover in 1962 occurred to stop an elected civilian leader from creating a federal state where the minorities would have some control over their own affairs. But the 1.1 million Rohingyas are special because they are almost all Muslims.
The other minorities are all Buddhists, at least in theory, and the Army only kills enough of them to quell their revolts. The Rohingya never revolted, Muslims are feared and reviled by the Burmese majority. Now the Army claims that the Rohingyas are all recent immigrants from Bangladesh, and is trying to drive them out of the country.
The ancestors of the Rohingya, migrated from what is now Bangladesh between the 14th and 18th centuries and settled in the Rakhine (Arakan) region of Burma. They were mostly poor farmers just like their Buddhist neighbours and their right to Burmese citizenship was unquestioned until the Burmese military seized power in 1962. Since then, they have been treated as aliens and enemies.
The ultra-nationalist military regime launched its first open attacks on the Rohingya in 1978 and drove some 200,000 of them across the border into Bangladesh, in a campaign marked by widespread killings, mass rape and the destruction of mosques. Even then, their civilian Buddhist neighbours in Rakhine helped in the attacks.
The Rohingyas' citizenships were revoked in 1982, and other new laws forbade them to travel without official permission, banned them from owning land, and required newly married couples to sign a commitment to have no more than two children. Another military campaign drove a further quarter million Rohingyas into Bangladesh in 1990-91. Then things went relatively quiet until 2013.
The trouble this time started with anti Muslim riots in Burma's cities, where there are around a million other Muslims, mostly descended from people who immigrated from British-ruled India after Burma was conquered and incorporated into the empire in mid 19th century.
These urban Muslims, many of whom owned shops or other small businesses, attracted the envy and resentment of poorer Burmese, and have been the targets of sporadic rioting and looting throughout the past century. Since independence, the Burmese Army often supported these riots, or even incited them.
What lies behind all this hostility is a deep-seated fear that Islam is going to displace Buddhism in Burma as it has done in other once-Buddhist countries from Afghanistan to Indonesia. It is a completely unfounded fear — Muslims are just four per cent of Burma's population, but many Buddhist Burmese are obsessed with it.
When the Taliban blew up the giant sixth century statues of Buddha at Bamiyan in Afghanistan in 2001, the Burmese Army ‘retaliated' by bulldozing the ancient Han Tha Mosque in the city of Taungoo. In the same year Burmese monks began distributing an anti-Muslim pamphlet called ‘The fear of losing one's race', and since then Buddhist monks have been in the forefront of the attacks on Muslims — including in Rakhine.
The poor Rohingya farmers of Rakhine have little in common with the Muslim merchants of Burma's big cities, but they are now the main target of the Army's wrath. This is probably because Rakhine is the only province of Burma where Muslims are or more precisely were until recently — almost half the population.
The attacks on the Rohingya, initially explained as part of intercommunal riot between them and the local Buddhist population have escalated, until this year when the state have become straightforward with ethnic cleansing. The Army does not aim to kill them all, just enough of them to force the rest to flee across the border into Bangladesh — but that is still genocide.
It's now well on the way to accomplishing its goal, thanks to a small group of misguided young Rohingya men who formed a ramshackle resistance group called the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army and attacked several police posts on August 25 this year, killing twelve people.
They were armed with home-made black powder muskets and swords, but the Burmese Government proclaimed that it is under “terrorist attack” and launched a “counter-offensive” that is the local version of a final solution.
About 300,000 Rohingya have fled across the border into Bangladesh in the past couple of weeks, leaving behind an unknown number of dead in their burned down villages. The remaining Rohingyas in Burma, probably still more than half a million, are almost all in refugee camps that the regime carefully does not call ‘concentration camps'.
And what about Burma's resident saint, Aung San Suu Kyi, now in practice the head of a democratically elected Government (although, one is still subject to a military veto power on security matters) who denies that there is anything wrong going on.
(The writer is an independent journalist)